## Classification of inflationary models and constraints on fundamental physics

### Date of publication:

**Abstract**

This work is focused on the study of early time cosmology and in particular on the study of inflation. After an introduction on the standard Big Bang theory, we discuss the physics of CMB and we explain how its observations can be used to set constraints on cosmological models. We introduce inflation and we carry out its simplest realization by presenting the observables and the experimental constraints that can be set on inflationary models. The possibility of observing primordial gravitational waves (GWs) produced during inflation is discussed. We present the reasons to define a classification of inflationary models and introduce the \beta-function formalism for inflation by explaining why in this framework we can naturally define a set of universality classes for inflationary models. Theoretical motivations to support the formulation of inflation in terms of this formalism are presented. Some generalized models of inflation are introduced and the extension of the \beta-function formalism for inflation to these models is discussed. Finally we focus on the study of models where the (pseudo-scalar) inflaton is coupled to some Abelian gauge fields that can be present during inflation. The analysis of the problem is carried out by using a characterization of inflationary models in terms of their asymptotic behavior. A wide set of theoretical aspects and of observational consequences is discussed.